Inference is a higher-level critical thinking skill. Asking students to “read between the lines” is a conceptual request, that for some, is difficult to grasp.

Consider using the other skills that students have practiced – annotation, main idea/details, and summary to move toward inference.


Head Heart Action Formative.jpg

Head Heart Action

This quick formative assessment gives students the opportunity to view the lesson in three different ways: mentally, emotionally and physically.

Head Heart Action

How well do I know these words?

Think of using this vocabulary graphic organizer in pairs as students determine the words they think they know and the ones they actually know.  Doing this activity as a pair gives students the opportunity to talk about words and how words benefit their learning.

How Well Do I  Know These Words?


This iconic strategy created by Dr. Taffy Raphael, offers universal design in its approach to inquiry.  There are several ways to utilize the Q-A-R model; ultimately scaffolding based on student need. The "Right There" Questions are found directly in the text.  The "Think and Search" are inference-based questions.  Finally, the "Author and Me" Questions or "On My Own" Questions encourages students to interact with the text on a personal level.

QAR Handout

QAR Author Handout

Four Square Vocabulary Model

The Four Square Vocabulary Model assists our visual learners as they study various ways of learning vocabulary words.

Word Family Tree

A vocabulary acquisition strategy that promotes deep concept processing as it moves students from analyzing word origins to real world applications.

Conversation Collector

The Conversation Collector offers students meaningful opportunities for conversation in a variety of contexts.